Scientific solutions for the gap in translational medicine: skin model platform with melanoma (3D melanoma)

03:192 years ago

The developing process of a new drug, from first testing to regulatory approval and ultimately to market is a long, costly, and risky path. Noteworthy is the fact that almost 95% of the drugs that go into human trials fail. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), 80 to 90% of drug research projects fail before they ever get tested in humans. The value of preclinical research, mainly conducted in animal model experiments for predicting the effectiveness of therapies and treatment strategies in human trials, has remained controversial. Only 6% of the animal studies are successfully translated into the human response. Breaking down failure rates by therapeutic area, oncology disorders account for 30% of all failures. The absence of human-relevant models with receptors, proteins, and drug interactions in the in situ microenvironment leaves a gap in the scientific discovery process of new therapies. In this context, the present work presents the development of a sophisticated in vitro skin model platform focus on boosting melanoma treatment. The results showed a physiological microenvironment of human skin with epidermal differentiation and development of stratified layers (basement membrane, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum). Furthermore, it was observed the pathophysiological microenvironment of the melanoma with invasion or migration through the basement membrane into the dermis and no epidermal differentiation. Vemurafenib treatment, the gold standard which targets BRAF mutations, showed a decrease in proliferation and invasion of melanoma tumors, with an increase in epidermis keratinization. Melanoma incidence continues to increase year-on-year and is currently responsible for >80% of skin cancer deaths. It is the most common cutaneous form and is known to have the highest mutational load of all cancers. Nowadays, patients with advanced melanoma BRAFV600E mutation can benefit from monotherapies or targeted therapies. Although the initial response rate is effective, disease progression and tumor chemoresistance rapidly occur in the majority of patients. Therefore, the treatment of melanoma remains a challenge, and despite the advances, there is still an urgent need to identify new therapeutic strategies. 3D Model Melanoma is considered one important tool for studying the evolution of the pathology, as well
as evaluating the effectiveness of new therapeutic approaches.

Related

Five simple tricks for making your own video for TPI.tv
Various subjects

Five simple tricks for making your own video for TPI.tv

This video shows you how to make a video yourself. It's really not that difficult! See also https://tpi.tv/how-to-submit for additional information.
01:234 years ago
Stem cell derived Vessels-on-Chip to study brain disorders
Innovation examples
Innovation

Stem cell derived Vessels-on-Chip to study brain disorders

Dennis Nahon is a PhD candidate in the Department of Anatomy and Embryology at the Leiden University Medical Center. In his research, under supervision of Dr. Valeria Orlova (https://www.orlovalab.com/) and Prof. Dr. Christine Mummery, he aims to mimic a blood vessel in the brain by combining different stem cell derived cell types, in a 3D Vessel-on-Chip model. Here, an example of these in vitro blood vessels is shown in which certain brain cells known as astrocytes (in white) interact with the blood vessels (in red). This model paves the way for investigating brain vessels outside the human body, while reducing the need for animal models.
01:5312 days ago
 From 2D hiPSC culture to developing a 3D vessel-on-chip
Innovation examples
Innovation

From 2D hiPSC culture to developing a 3D vessel-on-chip

Theano Tsikari is a 2nd year PhD student at the Orlova group at LUMC. As part of the LymphChip consortium, her project focuses on the development of immunocompetent organ-on-chip models of the cardiovascular system, and especially the integration of tissue-resident macrophages and lymphatic vasculature using human induced pluripotent stem cells. In this video, you can follow her as she presents you the backbone of her project, a 3D hiPSC-derived vessel-on-chip model, that has been previously developed in the Orlova group and can be employed for the generation of advanced in vitro models of vascular diseases.
01:2912 days ago
Unified organoid system for modeling heart and kidney interaction on-a-chip
Innovation examples
Innovation

Unified organoid system for modeling heart and kidney interaction on-a-chip

Beatrice Gabbin is a PhD candidate at the Anatomy and Embryology Department of the Leiden University Medical Center. Her project is shared with the Nephrology Department and focusses on the study of the cardiorenal axis in vitro. Both heart and kidneys have vital functions in the human body and reciprocally influence each other’s behavior: pathological changes in one can damage the other. There are already multiple independent in vitro (human) models of heart and kidney, but none have so far captured their dynamic crosstalk. The aim of the project is therefore to develop a microfluidic system which can be used to study heart and kidney interaction in vitro. For this purpose, cardiac microtissues and kidney organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells are generated and loaded onto a 3D perfusion chip for their dynamic co-culture. This system enables the study the cardiac and kidney interaction with a high level of control. The validation of a unified organoid system will enable the investigation of diseases involving the two organs and their potential treatments. Read more via the link in the video and https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtbio.2023.100818.
01:3612 days ago